Mon September 17, 2012
Shriveled Mich. Apple Harvest Means Fewer Jobs, Tough Year Ahead
Originally published on Tue September 18, 2012 1:42 pm
An apple a day might keep the doctor away, but what do you do when there are no apples? It's a question western Michigan's apple growers are dealing with this season after strange weather earlier in the year decimated the state's apple cultivation.
Michigan is the third-largest apple producer in the U.S. after New York and Washington, but the state's apples will soon be in short supply. Now in the middle of harvest season, growers are picking only 10 percent to 15 percent of their normal crop.
Michigan State University estimates the wholesale value of the missing apples to be $110 million, a hit that is rippling through the regional apple economy. Less fruit means fewer picking jobs and little to no income from apples in storage that growers rely on to get them through to the next year's harvest.
"This spring, 2012, is probably going to be one for the record books," says Amy Irish-Brown of the Michigan State University Extension, who works with fruit growers in the west Michigan region known as the Ridge. The 8-by-20-mile stretch of low-slung ridges, normally ideal for fruit cultivation, is where 65 percent of the state's apples are grown.
Irish-Brown says last fall's mild weather, followed by a mild winter with lots of rain and little snow, was the start of the problem. Then, in March, temperatures rose into the 80s.
"That mild winter, no frost in the ground ... as soon as that warm weather came and lasted for a whole week, the trees just started growing," Irish-Brown says.
The trees, sensing spring, broke dormancy. Buds, blossoms and even tiny 5-millimeter apples appeared. But winter wasn't done yet, and on April 27, temperatures plummeted below freezing. Irish-Brown says that in some of the lowest areas on the Ridge, it went down to 22 degrees.
"I always say we're 2 degrees from disaster, most springs," says Joe Rasch, who has farmed apples here since 1984. "This year, it caught up with us."
Rasch has orchards on several farms on the Ridge. He says that on the night of April's deadly freeze, people burned hay and used wind machines to try to stave off the worst of the cold for their apples, but the supplemental heat couldn't beat it.
"I just don't know what you can do to heat up acres of countryside," Rasch says.
Rasch's harvest this year is less than 10 percent of his usual crop, he says, which means less work is available for apple pickers. Abel Balderas, Rasch's foreman, says he normally has between 60 and 70 workers picking apples. This year, they only hired 20.
"I heard [the workers we couldn't hire] went to different states to work," Balderas says. "Hopefully next year we have a better season and they come back."
Jack Brown Produce is also feeling the pinch from the contracted picking season. Some 75 local apple growers on the Ridge and nearby take their fruit to the company to be processed, packaged and shipped out.
"We are normally an 11-month-a-year operation," says the company's president, John Schaefer. "We'll start packing when harvest starts about mid-August, and we will generally go into the following July. This year I think it's going to be about the first of November when we finish."
The shriveled harvest means the packing house will shut down for much of the year to come. Usually, most of the apples are kept in storage and shipped out monthly for the rest of the year, but that won't happen this time. Without the income from apples sold from storage, growers won't have any more money coming in until the 2013 harvest.
At Schwallier's Country Basket farm market in Sparta, owners Judy and Phil Schwallier say they'll have the usual cider and doughnuts, and a corn maze. But they won't have U-Pick apples for sale this season.
Years from now, when stories are told about the 2012 freeze and the harvest on the Ridge, the Schwalliers say they will recall walking out into their orchards looking for fruit. With so few apples on the trees, they gave each one a name.
"When we found our first apple, we gave it 'Alice,' " Phil says. "We got up to 'Rachel.' We found, in other words, about 20 apples. That's how short they are. There's none out there."
It might be tight times now, but people all along the Ridge are hopeful that next year's harvest will be a great one. The trees, they say, are resting and gathering their strength.
AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
Michigan has an apple problem on its hands. It's the country's third-largest grower of apples after New York and Washington. The Michigan apples will soon be in short supply. The problem isn't the summer drought. It's a killing freeze that came late in April. Now, it's harvest time statewide and growers are picking only 10 to 15 percent of their normal crop.
NPR's Noah Adams sent this report from an apple region in west Michigan, known as The Ridge.
NOAH ADAMS, BYLINE: Standing on a hillside overlooking thousands of healthy but mostly barren trees, the Michigan State University Extension agent takes a sip of coffee and a deep breath, thinking about last April.
AMY IRISH-BROWN: This spring, 2012, is going to be probably one for the record books.
ADAMS: Amy Irish-Brown lives right here on The Ridge and remembers the start of all this. It was last October - very mild weather on into the winter, mostly rain, not snow. And then, in March, it got up to the 80s, close to 90.
IRISH-BROWN: That mild winter, no frost in the ground and, as soon as that warm weather came and lasted for a whole week, the trees just started growing.
ADAMS: Buds appeared, blossoms, even tiny five-millimeter apples.
IRISH-BROWN: Here on The Ridge, we made it until about the end of April. April 27th was a cold morning. We had some spots that got down to 24, 22 in some of these really low cold areas.
ADAMS: The region called The Ridge is in the western part of the state near Lake Michigan. Actually, it's a series of ridges, some 800 feet high. About 65 percent of the entire Michigan crop comes from The Ridge.
JOE RASCH: My name is Joe Rasch. I've been basically a apple grower full-time since '84. And I would say we're two degrees from disaster most springs. And this year, it caught up with us.
ADAMS: Joe Rasch has orchards on several farms on The Ridge. The April night when it started to get so cold, he took a nap and then got in his truck at midnight.
RASCH: I was all over our farms. I've got seven of the big - you see those wind machines down there, up on a pole?
RASCH: And they rotate every five minutes and that's what we were doing all that night is making sure the machines were running and watching the helicopters fly around. And people were burning hay bales and everything else. But I don't try to make supplemental heat. I just don't know what you can do to heat up acres of countryside.
ADAMS: The Apple harvest this year for Joe Rasch, he figures, is less than 10 percent of his usual crop. Abel Banderas is Joe's foreman.
ABEL BANDERAS: We usually have like 60, 70 workers. This year we've got 20 - big difference.
ADAMS: Right, so the ones that you can't use, what do they do?
BANDERAS: I heard they went different states to work. Hopefully, next year we have a better season and they come back.
(SOUNDBITE OF SPRINKLERS)
ADAMS: About 75 apple growers on The Ridge and nearby, take their fruit to Jack Brown Produce.
JOHN SCHAEFER: As the fruit comes out of the washing and drying operation, it's being singulated onto six lanes of this Durand-Wayland grater that we have here. There's a camera for each lane. And as the fruit is...
ADAMS: On this sorting line, Gala apples go into three-pound bags.
(SOUNDBITE OF SPRINKLERS)
ADAMS: The company president is John Schaefer and we go sit in the lunchroom so he can outline the challenge ahead, and it's tough. A 15 percent harvest means the packing house will shut down for much of the year to come.
SCHAEFER: We are normally an 11-month of the year operation. We'll start packing when harvest starts about mid-August and we will generally go into the following July. This year, I think it's going to be about the first of November when we finish.
ADAMS: No apples means no jobs. And the growers as well, without apples being sold from storage, won't have anymore money coming in until the 2013 harvest.
JUDY SCHWALLIER: The little goats are always the highlight. People love to go in there and hold them. Aren't they cute?
(SOUNDBITE OF GOATS)
ADAMS: These baby goats are one-week-old at Schwallier's Country Basket Farm Market. Judy and Phil Schwallier are the owners. They'll have cider and doughnuts, a corn maze, but no U-Pick apples this time. So, years from now, when the stories are told about the 2012 freeze and the harvest on The Ridge in west Michigan, here's what the Schwalliers will say about walking out into their orchards looking for fruit: they started naming the apples.
PHIL SCHWALLIER: When we found our first apple, we gave it Alice. And then we found our second - just like the hurricanes, we found our second one, we gave it Brian and the third one Camille. And we got up to Rachel. We found, in other words, about 20 apples.
SCHWALLIER: That's how short they are. There's none out there.
ADAMS: The value of the missing apples - Michigan State puts that figure at $110 million - that would have been wholesale money to the growers. But the people you talk to on The Ridge, they all say next year, the 2013 crop, that's going to be a great one. The trees are resting and gathering strength.
Noah Adams, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright National Public Radio.